Auditory Imagery Bibliography

(last update: September 26, 2016)

Auditory imagery has been defined as "the introspective persistence of an auditory experience, including one constructed from components drawn from long-term memory, in the absence of a direct sensory instigation of the experience" (Intons-Peterson, 1992, p. 46). In other words, auditory imagery is the experience of the auditory sensory qualities of a stimulus in the absence of that stimulus.

Although imagery has attracted a lot of research interest within the scientific community, relatively little of that research focused on auditory imagery (for recent reviews of research on auditory imagery, see Hubbard 2010, 2013a, 2013b). This site is intended to provide a clearinghouse for information on auditory imagery, and one purpose of this bibliography is to encourage additional investigation of auditory imagery.

Comments, contributions, and suggestions for additions should be sent to timothyleehubbard@gmail.com.

Clicking on a letter below will jump to the section of the bibliography containing papers in which the first author's last name begins with that letter.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



Abramson, M., & Goldinger, S. D. (1997). What the reader's eye tells the mind's ear: Silent reading activates inner speech. Perception & Psychophysics, 59, 1059-1068.

Alderson-Day, B., & Fernyhough, C. (2014). More than one voice: Investigating the phenomenological properties of inner speech requires a variety of methods. Consciousness and Cognition, 24, 113-114.

Alderson-Day, B., & Fernyhough, C. (2015). Inner speech: Development, cognitive functions, phenomenology, and neurobiology. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 931-965.

Alderson-Day, B., McCarthy-Jones, S., Bedford, S. Collins, H. Dunne, H., Rooker, C., & Fernyhough, C. (2014). Shot through with voices: Dissociation mediates the relationship between varieties of inner speech and auditory hallucination. Consciousness and Cognition, 27, 288-296.

Aleman, A., Formisano, E., Koppenhagen, H., Hagoort, P., de Hann, E. H. F., & Kahn, R. S. (2005). The functional neuroanatomy of metrical stress evaluation of perceived and imaged spoken words. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 221-228.

Aleman, A., Nieuwenstein, M. R., Boecker, K. B. E., & de Hann, E. H. F. (2000). Music training and mental imagery ability. Neuropsychologia, 38, 1664-1668.

Aleman, A., & van't Wout, M. (2004). Subvocalization in auditory-verbal imagery: just a form of motor imagery? Cognitive Processing, 5, 228-231.

Alexander, J. D., & Nygaard, L. C. (2008). Reading voices and hearing text: Talker-specific auditory imagery in reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 34, 446-459.

Anderson, R. E. (1982). Speech imagery is not always faster than visual imagery. Memory & Cognition, 10, 371-380.

Atkinson, J. R., Gleeson, K., Cromwell, J., & O'Rouke, S. (2007). Exploring the perceptual characteristics of voice-hallucinations in deaf people. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 12, 339-361.

Aziz-Zadeh, L., Cattaneo, L., Rochat, M. & Rizzolatte, G. (2005). Covert speech arrest induced by rTMS over both motor and nonmotor left hemisphere frontal sites. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 928-938.

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Baba, A., & Hamada, H. (1999). Musical hallucinations in schizophrenia. Psychopathology, 32, 242-251.

Badcock, J. C., Waters, F. A. V., Maybery, M. T., & Michie, P. T. (2005). Auditory hallucinations: Failure to inhibit irrelevant memories. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 10, 125-136.

Baddeley, A. D., & Andrade, J. (2000). Working memory and the vividness of imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129, 126-145.

Baddeley, A. D., Lewis, V. J., & Vallar, G. (1984). Exploring the articulatory loop. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36, 233-252.

Baddeley, A. D., & Logie, R. H. (1992). Auditory imagery and working memory. In D. Reisberg (Ed.) Auditory imagery (pp. 179-197). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bailes, F. (2007). The prevalence and nature of imagined music in the everyday lives of music students. Psychology of Music, 35, 555-570.

Bailes, F. (2007). Timbre as an elusive component of imagery for music. Empirical Musicology Review, 2, 21-34.

Bailes, F. (2015). Music in mind? An experience sampling study of what and when, towards an understanding of why. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 25, 58-68.

Bangert, M., Jürgens, U., Häusler, U., & Altenmüller, E. (2006). Classically conditioned responses to absent tones. BMC Neuroscience, 7, 60.

Beaman, C. P., Powell, K., Rapley, E. (2015). Want to block earworms from conscious awareness? B(u)y gum! The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 1049-1057.

Beaman, C. P., & Williams, T. I. (2010). Earworms ('stuck song syndrome'): Towards natural history of intrusive thoughts. British Journal of Psychology, 101, 637-653.

Bentaleb, L. A., Beauregard, M., Liddle, P., & Stip, E. (2002). Cerebral activity associated with auditory verbal hallucinations: A functional magnetic resonance imaging case study. Revue de Psychiatrie & de Neuroscience, 27, 110-115.

Beaty, R. E., Burgin, C. J., Nusbaum, E. C., Kwapil, T. R., Hodges, D. A., & Silvia, P. J. (2013). Music to the inner ears: Exploring individual differences in musical imagery. Consciousness and Cognition, 22, 1163-1173.

Bentall, R. P., & Slade, P. D. (1985). Reality testing and auditory hallucinations A signal detection analysis. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, 159-169.

Bernard, J. W. (1986). Messiaen's synaesthesia: The correspondence between color and sound structure in his music. Music Perception, 4, 41-68.

Bick, P. A., & Kinsbourne, M. (1987). Auditory hallucinations and subvocal speech in schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 222-225.

Bishop L., Bailes, F., & Dean, R. T. (2013). Musical expertise and the ability to imagine loudness. PLoS ONE 8(2): e56052. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056052.

Bishop L., Bailes, F., & Dean, R. T. (2013). Musical imagery and the planning of dynaimcs and articulation during performance. Music Perception, 31, 97-117.

Brett, E. A., & Starker, S. (1977). Auditory imagery and hallucinations. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 164, 394-400.

Brocklehurst, P. H., & Corley, M. (2011). Investigating the inner speech of people of stutter: Evidence for (and against) the covert repair hypothesis. Jounral of Communication Disorders, 44, 246-260.

Brodsky, W., Henik, A., Rubenstein, B. S., & Zorman, M. (2003). Auditory imagery from musical notation in expert musicians. Perception & Psychophysics, 65, 602-612.

Brodsky, W., Kessler, Y., Rubenstein, B. S. Ginsborg, J., & Henik, A. (2008). The mental representation of music notation: Notational audiation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34, 427-445.

Brown, R. M., & Palmer, C. (2012). Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music. Memory & Cognition, 40, 567-578.

Brown, R. M., & Palmer, C. (2013). Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, article 320.

Brown, S. (2006). The perpetual music track: The phenomenon of constant musical imagery. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 13, 43-62.

Brunyé, T. T., Ditman, T., Mahoney, C. R. Walters, E. K., & Taylor, H. A. (2010). You heard it here first: Readers mentally simulate described sounds. Acta Psychologica, 135, 209-215.

Bunzeck, N., Wuestenberg, T., Lutz, K., Heinze, H. J., & Jancke, L. (2005). Scanning silence: Mental imagery of complex sounds. NeuroImage, 26, 1119-1127.

Byron, T. P., & Fowles, L. C. (2015). Repetition and recency increases involuntary musical imagery of previously unfamiliar songs. Psychology of Music, 43, 375-389.

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Callan, D. E., Tsytsarev, V., Hanakawa, T., Callan, A. M., Katsuhara, M., Fukuyama, H., & Turner, R. (2006). Song and speech: Brain regions involved with perception and covert production. NeuroImage, 31, 1327-1342.

Campos, A., & Fuentes, L. (2016). Musical studies and the vividness and clarity of auditory imagery. Imagination, Cognition and Personality. doi: 10.1177/0276236616635985.

Campos, A., & Perez-Fabello, M. J. (2011). Some psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Clarity of Auditory Imagery Scale. Psychological Reports, 109, 139-146.

Cebrian, A. N., & Janata, P. (2010). Electrophysiological correlates of accurate mental image formation in auditory perception and imagery tasks. Brain Research, 1342, 39-54.

Cebrian, A. N., & Janata, P. (2010). Influences of multiple memory systems on auditory mental image acuity. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 127, 3189-3202.

Clark, T., & Williamon, A. (2011). Imagining the music: Methods for assessing musical imagery ability. Psychology of Music, 40, 471-493.

Coffman, D. D. (1990). Effects of mental practice, physical practice, and knowledge of results on piano performance. Journal of Research in Music Education, 38, 187-196.

Conrad, R. (1971). The chronology of the development of covert speech in children. Developmental Psychology, 53, 398-405.

Corley, M., Brocklehurst, P. H., & Susannah, H. (2011). Error biases in inner and overt speech: Evidence from tongue twisters. Jounral of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 162-175.

Crowder, R. G. (1989). Imagery for musical timbre. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 15, 472-478.

Crowder, R. G., & Pitt, M. A. (1992). Research on memory/imagery for musical timbre. In D. Reisberg (Ed.) Auditory imagery (pp. 27-44). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

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Daselaar, S. M., Porat, Y., Huijbers, W., & Pennartz, C. M. (2010). Modality-specific and modality-independent components of the human imagery system. Neuroimage, 52, 677-685.

Davidson-Kelly, K., Schaefer, R. S., Moran, N., & Overy, K. (2015). "Total inner memory": Deliberate uses of multimodal musical imagery during performance preparation. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 25, 83-92.

Davis, P. E., Meins, E., & Fernyhough, C. (2013). Individual differences in children's private speech: The role of imaginary companions. Jounral of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 561-571.

Day, K. L. & Smith, C. L. (2013). Understanding the role of private speech in children's emotional regulation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 405-414.

Deutsch, D. (1972). Mapping for interactions in the pitch memory store. Science, 175, 1020-1022.

Du Feu, M., & McKenna, P. J. (1999). Prelingually profoundly deaf schizophrenic patients who hear voices: a phenomenological analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 99, 453-459.

Duncan, R. M., & Cheyne, J. A. (1999). Incidence and functions of self-reported private speech in young adults: A self-verbalization questionnaire. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 31, 133-136.

Duncan, R. M., & Cheyne, J. A. (2001). Private speech in young adults: Task difficulty, self-regulation, and psychological predication. Cognitive Development, 16, 889-906.

Duncan, R. M., & Tarulli, D. (2009). On the persistence of private speech: empirical and theoretical considerations. In A. Winsler, C. Fernyhough, & I. Montero (Eds.), Private Speech, Executive Functioning, and the Development of Verbal Self-Regulation (pp. 176-187). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Eardley, A. F., & Pring, L. (2006). Remembering the past and imaging the future: A role for nonvisual imagery in the everyday cognition of blind and sighted people. Memory, 14, 925-936.

Elkin, J., & Leuthold, H. (2011). The representation of pitch in auditory imagery: Evidence from S-R compatibility and distance effects. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23, 76-91.

Evans, C. L., McGuire, P. K., & David, A. S. (2000). Is auditory imagery defective in patients with auditory hallucinations? Psychological Medicine, 30, 137-148.

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Farah, M. J., & Smith, A. F. (1983). Perceptual interference and facilitation with auditory imagery. Perception & Psychophysics, 33, 475-478.

Farrugia, N., Jakubowski, K., Cusack, R., Stewart, L. (2015). Tunes stuck in your brain: The frequency and affective evaluation of involuntary musical imagery correlate with cortical structure. Consciousness and Cognition, 35, 66-77.

Fernyhough, C. (2004). Alien voices and inner dialogue: towards a developmental account of auditory verbal hallucinations. New Ideas in Psychology, 22, 49-68.

Filik, R., & Barber, E. (2011). Inner speech during silent reading reflects the reader's regional accent. PLoS ONE, 6(10), e25782. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025782

Fischer, C. E., Marchie, A., & Norris, M. (2004). Musical and auditory hallucinations: A spectrum. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 58, 96-98.

Floridou, G. A., Williamson, V. J., Stewart, L., & Müllensiefen, D. (2015). The Involuntary Musical Imagery Scale (IMIS). Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 25, 28-36.

Fourie, E. (2004). The processing of music notation: some implications for piano sight-reading. Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa, 1, 1-23.

Fukunishi, I., Horikawa, N., & Onai, H. (1998). Prevalence rate of musical hallucinations in a general hospital setting. Psychosomatics, 39, 175.

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Geiselman, R. E., & Glenny, J. (1977). Effects of imaging speakers' voices on the retention of words presented visually. Memory & Cognition, 5, 499-504.

Geva, S., Bennett, S., Warburton, E. A., & Patterson, K. (2010). Discrepancy between inner and overt speech: Implications for post-stroke aphasia and normal language processing. Aphasiology, 25, 323-343.

Geva, S., Jones, P. S., Crinion, J. T., Price, C. J., Baron, J. C., & Warburton, E. A. (2011). The neural correlates of inner speech defined by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Brain, 134, 3071-3082.

Gissurarson, L. R. (1992). Reported auditory imagery and its relationship with visual imagery. Journal of Mental Imagery, 16, 117-122.

Godøy, R., & Jørgensen, H. (Eds.) (2001). Musical imagery. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Gomibuchi, T., Gomibuchi, K., Akiyama, T., Tsuda, H. & Hayakawa, T. (2000). Obsession of hearing music: From the viewpoint of Morita theory. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 54, 203-206.

Griffiths, T. D. (2000). Musical hallucinosis in acquired deafness: Phenomenology and brain substrate. Brain, 123, 2065-2076.

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Halpern, A. R. (1988). Mental scanning in auditory imagery for songs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 434-443.

Halpern, A. R. (1988). Perceived and imaged tempos of familiar songs. Music Perception, 6, 193-202.

Halpern, A. R. (1989). Memory for the absolute pitch of familiar songs. Memory & Cognition, 17, 572-581.

Halpern, A. R. (1992). Musical aspects of auditory imagery. In D. Reisberg (Ed.) Auditory imagery (pp. 1-27). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Halpern, A. R. (2003). Cerebral substrates of musical imagery. In I. Peretz & R. Zatorre (Eds.). The cognitive neuroscience of music (pp. 217-230). New York: Oxford University Press.

Halpern, A. R., (2007). Commentary on "Timbre as an elusive component of imagery for music" by Freya Bailes. Empirical Musicology Review, 2, 35-37.

Halpern, A. R. (2012). Dynamic aspects of musical imagery. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1252, 200-205.

Halpern, A. R. (2015). Differences in auditory imagery self-report predict neural and behavioral outcomes. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 25, 37-47.

Halpern, A. R., & Bartlett, J. C. (2011). The persistence of musical memories: A descriptive study of earworms. Music Perception, 28, 425-431.

Halpern, A. R., & Zatorre, R. J. (1999). When that tune runs through your head: a PET investigation of auditory imagery for familiar melodies. Cerebral Cortex, 9, 697-704.

Halpern, A. R., Zatorre, R. J., Bouffard, M., & Johnson, J. A. (2004). Behavioral and neural correlates of perceived and imagined musical timbre. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1281-1292.

Hargreaves, D. J. (2012). Musical imagination: Perception and production, beauty and creativity. Psychology of Music, 40, 539-557.

Harrison, M. (1981). Dysphasia during sleep due to an unusual vascular lesion. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 44, 739.

Herholz, S. C., Halpern, A. R., & Zatorre, R. J. (2012). Neuronal correlates of perception, imagery, and memory for familiar tunes. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 1382-1397.

Herholz, S. C., Lappe, C., Knief, A., & Pantev, C. (2008). Neural basis of music imagery and the effect of musical expertise. European Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 2352-2360.

Hermesh, H., Konas, S., Shiloh, R., Dar, R., Marom, S., Weizman, A., & Gross-Isseroff, R. (2004). Musical hallucinations: Prevalence in psychotic and non-psychotic outpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 191-197.

Highben Z., & Palmer, C. (2004). Effects of auditory and motor mental practice in memorized piano performance. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 159, 58-65.

Hinke, R. M., Hu, X., Stillman, A. E., Kim, S. G., Merkle, H., Salmi, R., & Ugurbil, K. (1993). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of Broca's area during internal speech. Neuroreport, 4, 675-678.

Hishitani, S. (2009). Auditory Imagery Questionnaire: Its factorial structure, reliability, and validity. Journal of Mental Imagery, 33, 63-80.

Hoffman, R. E., Fernandez, T., Pittman, B., & Hampson, M. (2011). Elevated functional connectivity along a corticostriatal loop and the mechanism of auditory/verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 69, 407-414.

Holland, L., & Low, J. (2010). Do children with autism use inner speech and visuospatial resources for the service of executive control? Evidence from suppression in dual tasks. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28, 369-391.

Hogenraad, R., & Orianne, E. (1983). 'A penny for your thoughts': Imagery value and the periodicity of interior monologue. Journal of Mental Imagery, 7, 51-61.

Hoppe, C., Splittstößer, C., Fliessbach, K., Trautner, P., Elger, C. E., & Weber, B. (2014). Silent music reading: Audiotry imagery and and visuotonal modality transfer in singers and non-singers. Brain and Cognition, 91, 35-44.

Hubbard, T. L. (2010). Auditory imagery: Empirical findings. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 302-329.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Auditory aspects of auditory imagery. In S. Lacey & R. Lawson (Eds.). Multisensory imagery (pp. 51-76). New York: Springer.

Hubbard, T. L. (2013). Auditory imagery contains more than audition. In S. Lacey & R. Lawson (Eds.). Multisensory imagery (pp. 221-247). New York: Springer.

Hubbard, T. L., & Stoeckig, K. (1988). Musical imagery: Generation of tones and chords. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 656-667.

Hubbard, T. L., & Stoeckig, K. (1992). The representation of pitch in musical images. In D. Reisberg (Ed.) Auditory imagery (pp. 199-235). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Huijbers, W., Pennartz, C. M., Rubin, D. C., & Daselaar, S. M. (2011). Imagery and retrieval of auditory and visual information: Neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful performance. Neuropsychologia, 49, 1730-40.

Hurlburt, R. T., Heavey, C. L., & Kelsey, J. M. (2013). Toward a phenomenology of inner speaking. Consciousness and Cognition, 22, 1477-1494.

Hyman Jr., I. E., Cutshaw, K. I., Hall, C. M., Snyders, M. E., Masters, S. A., Au, V. S. K., & Graham, J. M. (2015). Involuntary to intrusive: Using involuntary musical imagery to explore individual differences and the nature of intrusive thoughts. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 25, 14-27.

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Intons-Peterson, M. J. (1980). The role of loudness in auditory imagery. Memory & Cognition, 8, 385-393.

Intons-Peterson, M. J. (1992). Components of auditory imagery. In D. Reisberg (Ed.) Auditory imagery (pp. 45-71). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Intons-Peterson, M. J., Russell, W., & Dressel, S. (1992). The role of pitch in auditory imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 233-240.

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Jancke, L., & Shah, N. J., (2004). Hearing syllables by seeing visual stimuli. European Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 2603-2608.

Janata, P. (2001). Brain electrical activity evoked by mental formation of auditory expectations and images. Brain Topography, 13, 169-193.

Janata, P., & Paroo, K. (2006). Acuity of auditory images in pitch and time. Perception & Psychophysics, 68, 829-844.

Johns, L. C., Rossell, S., Frith, C., Ahmad, F., Hemsley, D., Kuipers, E., & McGuire, P. K. (2001). Verbal self-monitoring and auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 31, 705-715.

Johnson, M. K., Foley, M. A., & Leach, K. (1988). The consequences for memory of imagining in another person's voice. Memory & Cognition, 16, 337-342.

Jones, S. R. (2010). Do we need multiple models of auditory verbal hallucinations? Examining the phenomenological fit of cognitive and neurological models. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 36, 566-575.

Jones, S. R., & Fernyhough, C. (2007). Neural correlates of inner speech and auditory verbal hallucinations: A critical review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 140-154.

Jones, S. R., & Fernyhough, C. (2007b). Thought as action: Inner speech, self-monitoring, and auditory verbal hallucinations. Consciousness and Cognition, 16, 391-399.

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Kalakoski, V. (2001). Musical imagery and working memory. In R. Godøy & H. Jørgensen, (Eds.), Musical imagery (pp. 43-56). Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Kalakoski, V. (2007). Effect of skill level on recall of visually presented patterns of musical notes. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 48, 87-96.

Kasai, K., Asada, T., Yumoto, M., Takeya, J., & Matsuda, H. (1999). Evidence of functional abnormality in the right auditory cortex during musical hallucinations. Lancet, 354, 1703-1704.

Keller, T. A., Cowan, N., & Saults, J. S. (1995). Can auditory memory for tone pitch be rehearsed? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 635-645.

Keller, P. E., Dalla Bella, S., & Koch, I. (2010). Auditory imagery shapes movement timing and kinematics: Evidence from a musical task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36, 508-513.

Keller, P. E., & Koch, I. (2006). The planning and execution of short auditory sequences. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 711-716.

Keller, P. E., & Koch, I. (2008). Action planning in sequential skills: Relations to music performance. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 275-291.

Kopiez, R., Weihs, C., Ligges, U., & Lee, J. I. (2006). Classification of high and low achievers in a music sight-reading task. Psychology of Music, 34, 5-26.

Kompus, K., Falkenberg, L. E., Bless, J. J., Johnsen, E., Kroken, R. A., Krakvik, B., Larøi, F., Løberg, E. M., Vedul-Kjelsas, E., Westerhausan, R., & Hugdahl, K. (2013). The role of primary auditory cortex in the neural mechanism of auditory verbal hallucinations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, article 144.

Kornicke, L. E. (1995). An exploratory study of individual difference variables in piano sight-reading achievement. Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning, 6, 56-79.

Kosslyn, S. M., & Matt, M. C. (1977). If you speak slowly, do people read your prose slowly? Person-particular speech recoding during reading. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 9, 250-252.

Kraemer, D. J. M., Macrae, C. N., Green, A. E., & Kelly, W. M. (2005). Sound of silence activates auditory cortex. Nature, 434, 158.

Kristeva, R., Chakarov, V., Schulte-Monting, J. & Spreer, J. (2003). Activation of cortical areas in music execution and imaging: A high-resolution EEG study. Neuroimage, 20, 1872-1883.

Kühn, S., & Gallinat, J. (2012). Quantitative meta-analysis on state and trait aspects of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38, 779-786.

Kurby, C. A., Magliano, J. P., & Rapp, D. N. (2009). Those voices in your head: Activation of auditory images during reading. Cognition, 112, 457-461.

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Langheim, F. J. P., Callicott, J. H., Mattay, V. S., Duyn, J. H., & Weinberger, D. R. (2002). Cortical systems associated with covert music rehearsal. NeuroImage, 16, 901-908.

Larøi, F., Sommer, I. E., Blom, J. D., Fernyhough, C., Ffytche, D. H., Hugdahl, K., Johns, L. C., McCarthy-Jones, S., Preti, A., Raballo, A., Slotema, C. W., Stephane, M., & Waters, F. (2012). The characteristic features of auditory verbal hallucinations in clinical and nonclinical groups: state-of-the-art overview and future directions. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38, 724-733.

Larrain, A., & Haye, A. (2012). The discursive nature of inner speech. Theory & Psychology, 22, 3-22.

Leaver, A. M., van Lare, J., Zielinski, B., Halpern, A. R., & Rauschecker, J. P. (2009). Brain activation during anticipation of sound sequences. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 2477-2485.

Lennox, B. R., Park, S. B. G., Medley, I., Morris, P. G., Jones, P. B. (2000). The functional anatomy of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 100, 13-20.

Levine, D. N., Calvanio, R., & Popovics, A. (1982). Language in the absence of inner speech. Neuropsychologia, 20, 391-409.

Lidstone, J., Fernyhough, C., Meins, E., & Whitehouse, A. J. O. (2009). Brief report: Inner speech impairment in children with autism is associated with greater nonverbal than verbal skills. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1222-1225.

Lidstone, J., Meins, E., & Fernyhough, C. (2010). The roles of private speech and inner speech in planning during middle childhood: evidence from a dual task paradigm. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 107, 438-451.

Lidstone, J., Meins, E., & Fernyhough, C. (2011). Individual differences in children's private speech: Consistency across tasks, timepoints, and contexts. Cognitive Development, 26, 203-213.

Liikkanen, L. A. (2011). Musical activities predispose to involuntary musical imagery. Psychology of Music, 40, 236-256.

Lim, S., & Lippman, L. G. (1991). Mental practice and memorization of piano music. Journal of General Psychology, 118, 121-130.

Linden, D. E., Thornton, K., Kuswanto, C. N., Johnston, S. J., van de Ven, V., & Jackson, M. C. (2011). The brain's voices: comparing nonclinical auditory hallucinations and imagery. Cerebral Cortex, 21, 330-337.

Lotze, M., Scheler, G., Tan, H. R. M., Braun, C., & Birbaumer, N. (2003). The musician's brain: functional imaging of amateurs and professional during performance and during imagery. NeuroImage, 20, 1817-1829.

Lucas, B. J., Schubert, E., & Halpern, A. R. (2010). Perception of emotion in sounded and imagined music. Music Perception, 27, 399-412.

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MacKay, D. G. (1992). Constraints on theories of inner speech. In D. Reisberg (Ed.) Auditory imagery (pp. 121-149). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Macken, W. J., & Jones, D. M. (1995). Functional characteristics of the inner voice and the inner ear: Single of double agency? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 436-448.

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